Treaty of Hudaybiyah – A Treaty with a Clear Purpose

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Uzma Jawed

إِنَّا فَتَحْنَا لَكَ فَتْحًا مُّبِينًا

“Indeed, We have given you, [O Muhammad], a clear conquest” [Al-Qur’an – Surat Al-Fatĥ (The Victory): 01]

Sometimes we face situations in which we feel victimized. We feel like we have incurred loss and we always want the upper hand and to have the last word in most situations. Yet, we do not realize that victories do not necessarily mean immediate gratification or an immediate outcome. We may achieve success in the longer term but we just don’t have the capacity to realize this at the initial stage.

Similarly, for the Muslims, the Treaty of Hudaibiyah was one where many Companions felt they had actually lost in front of the Quraysh. Whereas, Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) clearly states that this situation was a clear conquest.

Background of The Treaty of Hudaibiyah*

Rasul Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) had a vision where he saw himself and his Companions entering Ka’bah, praying and then shaving their heads. The Companions were informed that they were to go for Umrah shortly after that.

Along with 1400 Muhajireen, Rasul Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) set out for Makkah. Sacrificial animals went along with them. On the other side, the Quraysh were determined to prevent the Muslims from performing Umrah. Rasul Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) conferred with the Companions about the situation and their options were to either attack the allied tribes or to march ahead towards the Ka’bah and fight those preventing them from the worship of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى).

After days of negotiation, a treaty was formulated between the Quraysh and the Muslims which contained several clauses and most importantly the clause that there would be no battle and that the Muslims will not perform Umrah that year.

To the Sahabas on the forefront, it seemed like a big loss so much so that Umar (رضى الله عنه) remarked skeptically, “Is this a victory, O Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) .” The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) replied, “Yes.”

How was it a “Clear Victory”?

Because of the peace that was established, the precious lives of the Companions were saved. In effect, Islam spread through these very Companions. Muslims were able to mix with other Arabs and invite them towards Islam. More people became Muslims in the following two years than had become in the previous nineteen years. Important figures such as Khalid bin Waleed (رضى الله عنه)accepted Islam thereby creating a large impact in Islamic history.

When the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) recited Surah Al-Fath it brought him solace. In it are all the numerous blessings for those who truly believe.

  • Although it did not seem like it initially, as time evolved, the Companions realized that most definitely the Treaty of Hudaibiyah was a clear conquest
  • Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) guided believers to a straight path despite resistance from the Quraysh
  • Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) helped the believers in obtaining a mighty victory
  • Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) sent down tranquility into the hearts of the believers to increase their faith even more
  • Allah (سبحانه و تعالى)’s promised the believers attainment of Jannah and removal of their misdeeds
  • Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) was sent to the believers as a bringer of good tidings and a warner
  • Those who pledge their allegiance to Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) and Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم), Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) has promised them a great reward
  • The attainment of war booty
  • Allah (سبحانه و تعالى)’s promise of forgiveness and a great reward for those who believe and do righteous deeds

لَقَدْ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِذْ يُبَايِعُونَكَ تَحْتَ الشَّجَرَةِ فَعَلِمَ مَا فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ فَأَنزَلَ السَّكِينَةَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَأَثَابَهُمْ فَتْحًا قَرِيبًا

“Certainly was Allah pleased with the believers when they pledged allegiance to you, [O Muhammad], under the tree, and He knew what was in their hearts, so He sent down tranquility upon them and rewarded them with an imminent conquest” [Al-Qur’an – Surat Al-Fatĥ (The Victory): 18]

وَمَغَانِمَ كَثِيرَةً يَأْخُذُونَهَا وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا

“And much war booty which they will take. And ever is Allah Exalted in Might and Wise.” [Al-Qur’an – Surat Al-Fatĥ (The Victory): 19]

وَعَدَكُمُ اللَّهُ مَغَانِمَ كَثِيرَةً تَأْخُذُونَهَا فَعَجَّلَ لَكُمْ هَذِهِ وَكَفَّ أَيْدِيَ النَّاسِ عَنكُمْ وَلِتَكُونَ آيَةً لِّلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَيَهْدِيَكُمْ صِرَاطًا مُّسْتَقِيمًا

“Allah has promised you much booty that you will take [in the future] and has hastened for you this [victory] and withheld the hands of people from you – that it may be a sign for the believers and [that] He may guide you to a straight path.” [Al-Qur’an – Surat Al-Fatĥ (The Victory): 20]

وَأُخْرَى لَمْ تَقْدِرُوا عَلَيْهَا قَدْ أَحَاطَ اللَّهُ بِهَا وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرًا

And [He promises] other [victories] that you were [so far] unable to [realize] which  Allah has already encompassed. And ever is Allah, over all things, competent. [Al-Qur’an – Surat Al-Fatĥ (The Victory): 21]

*When the Moon Split p. 206-217

About Quran Reflections

Al-Huda's branch at Khayaban-e-Sehar is one of the few Quran courses being regularly conducted in Karachi, Pakistan, where the mode of instruction and examination is English. The students and teachers have decided to upload their reflections on the Quran and class notes on this blog, in order to be available to a global audience for the latter's benefit and inspiration.
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